'Second-order' institutions: National institutional quality as a yardstick for EU evaluation

Pieterjan Desmet, Joost van Spanje, Claes de Vreese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1088
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of European Public Policy
Issue number7
Early online date31 Jan 2012
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2012


  • Democratic performance
  • European Union
  • institutional quality
  • national institutions
  • political knowledge
  • satisfaction with European democracy

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