Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The claim that each country has a distinct and enduring monolithic ‘national culture’ is often espoused by radical exclusivists, including by many nativist nationalists and absolute sovereigntists. Within business and management studies, the most popular exponent of primordialist nationalism has been Geert Hofstede and his many academic followers. This paper argues that characteristics Hofstede attributes to ‘national culture’ are not derived from, or verified by, the IBM survey data - the foundation of his work - nor are they plausible. His ostensibly dispassionate analysis of data is suffused with preconceptions, speculation, and neglect of counter-evidence and critical literature. Overwhelmingly, he provides no supportive evidence for his lengthy lists of the purported consequences of ‘national culture’ - and many are demonstrably incorrect.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHofstede's Consequences: Cultural Matters in Management
ISBN (Electronic)S. Magala et al.
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • National culture, Hofstede, Confirmation bias, IBM

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