Greek Orthodox monasteries in the Holy Land and their liturgies in the period of the crusades

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The First Crusade and subsequent establishment of a Latin state and Latin Church hierarchy in Jerusalem was intended to liberate the Christian population of the Holy Land, most of them Greek Orthodox, from Seljuq rule, which was thought in the West to threaten Christian worship. Since the late tenth century, however, Greek monasteries in the Holy Land and Syria had been experiencing a revival which can be seen in the founding of new monasteries, the development of hagiographical and liturgical traditions, and intensive textual activity. This article explores the continued development of these forms in Greek monasteries under crusader rule (1099–1291), through an examination of the liturgical norms established by founders, and consideration of the types of manuscripts produced in their scriptoria. The relationship between newly revived Greek Orthodox monasticism and the Latin ecclesiastical hierarchy is considered through an examination of a manuscript of 1122 detailing the liturgy of the Easter Fire ritual.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-454
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Medieval History
Issue number4
Early online date10 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • liturgy, monasticism, Greek Orthodox, Holy Land

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