Algorithmic warfare: taking stock of a research programme

Ingvild Bode, Hendrik Huelss, Anna Nadibaidze, Guangyu Qiao-Franco, Tom F.A. Watts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article takes stock of the ongoing debates on algorithmic warfare in the social sciences. It seeks to equip scholars in International Relations and beyond with a critical review of both the empirical context of algorithmic warfare and the different theoretical approaches to studying practices related to the integration of algorithms, machine learning, and artificial intelligence (AI) into international armed conflict. The review focuses on discussions about (1) the implications of algorithmic warfare for strategic stability, (2) the morality and ethics of algorithmic warfare, (3) how algorithmic warfare relates to the laws and norms of war, and (4) popular imaginaries of algorithmic warfare. The article concludes by foregrounding a set of open research questions capable of moving the field toward a more interdisciplinary research agenda, as well as introducing the contributions made by other articles in this Special Issue.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalGlobal Society
Early online date1 Oct 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Oct 2023


  • algorithms
  • war
  • artificial intelligence

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