Torture Committed by Non-State Actors: The Developing Jurisprudence from the Ad Hoc Tribunals

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This paper examines the jurisprudence of the ad hoc war crimes tribunals on torture. Through case law analysis, it investigates the development of a definition of torture at customary international law for international criminal law which differs from that in the UN Torture Convention and that generally applied in human rights law. The author examines this analysis for insights into individual responsibility and individual protection under these areas of law.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-182
JournalNon-State Actors and International Law
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • torture
  • non-state actors
  • international criminal law
  • human rights

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