The Vanquished and the Conduct of War in Outremer - 1097-1198.

Ian Wilson

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis


This thesis departs from and interrogates the Latin chronicler William of Tyre’s claim that wars between men of different faiths were more violent affairs than conflicts between men who shared common traditions. While the conflicts in Outremer have produced numerous studies on the strategy, tactics and the technologies employed, scholarship has neglected the behaviours and practices of the protagonists. This thesis constitutes an original assessment of the conduct of war by exploring the fate of the vanquished in Outremer during 1097–1198. Because the violence of these wars fell disproportionately on the vanquished and the vulnerable, this thesis takes up the treatment of the defeated as a critical determinate in analysing wars within a single culture and between two different cultures or faiths. The study analyses the various outcomes the vanquished encountered, from conduct towards the enemy dead to the forced exile or enslavement of defeated citizens. The analysis demonstrates the impact of culture and identity on the conduct of war as well as highlighting the difficulty of detaching religious and cultural actions from pragmatic decisions. The thesis affirms William of Tyre’s claim by concluding that the deficit of ethical or familial ties in Outremer’s wars between men of different faiths enabled its victors to judge the defeated on their transactional value. Further research is needed to explore the nuances of this conclusion that reflect the captive individual’s identity as well as the broader personal, political and military needs of the victors.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Royal Holloway, University of London
  • Phillips, Jonathan, Supervisor
Award date1 Aug 2020
Publication statusUnpublished - 2020


  • Crusades
  • Military
  • slavery
  • Massacres
  • surrender

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