In Defence of the Realm: Financing loyalist terrorism in Northern Ireland - Part One: Extortion and blackmail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The revival of loyalist terrorism has been one of the most important developments in Northern Ireland in the 1990s. This article examines the recent fund‐raising activities of the two main loyalist paramilitary groups, the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). The article focuses particularly on the financial importance of extortion and blackmail to the groups in the 1990s. It also explores how the loyalist paramilitaries have responded, as organizations, to the constant need for funds, a need that has continued unabated since both groups implemented cease‐fires in 1994. The paper concludes that because of internal arrangements, the loyalist groups are consistently risking the spread of corruption among their most senior members.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-362
Number of pages32
JournalStudies in Conflict & Terrorism
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • terrorism
  • terrorist financing
  • funding of terrorism
  • loyalist paramilitaries
  • Ulster Defence Association
  • Ulster Volunteer Force
  • Northern Ireland
  • Troubles
  • Northern Ireland Troubles

Cite this