A psychosocial, attachment study of depression and well-being in Taiwanese women

Lun Chi Chang

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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The thesis examined psychosocial risks, and positive factors, in relation to depression and spiritual wellbeing in Taiwanese women. It also sought to replicate and extend UK-based attachment models in the Taiwanese context. Poor childhood care, unsupportive and conflictful relationships, negative self-esteem and insecure attachment style were examined in relation to models of depression. Positive aspects of such factors were examined in relation to spiritual wellbeing. Tests were performed for mediation and moderation effects involving attachment style. Relationships with birth family and family-in-law, as well as religious experience, were examined as additional cultural factors which might add to the explanatory models.
Method: The research utilised a cross-sectional quantitative analysis of 721 on-line questionnaires with Taiwanese women aged 18-55 using standardised self –report questionnaires translated into Mandarin. These were supplemented with the Attachment Style Interview on a small subset to explore the social context of experience.
Results: Logistic regression confirmed that childhood poor care, thoughts of partner separation, negative self-esteem and attachment insecurity provided the best model for depression outcome in women with a partner. For single women, age under 30 and negative self-esteem alone provided the best model. There was no evidence of mediation effects. Spiritual wellbeing was modelled by having a live-in partner, positive self-esteem, and security of attachment style. Limited evidence was presented for moderation effects. Case studies were used to outline the relationship and attachment experience of the Taiwanese women to look at the context of experience and cultural elements.
Conclusions: Whilst the basic psychosocial models of depression derived from UK research held, differences revolved around the wider range of family relationships important in Taiwan and important differences emerged in models for women under 30 without a partner which require further research. Attachment style was shown to hold in both risk and resilience models.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Royal Holloway, University of London
  • Bifulco, Antonia, Supervisor, External person
  • Evans, Tony, Advisor
Award date1 Sept 2013
Publication statusUnpublished - 2013


  • depression, well-being, attachment, Taiwanese women

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