Performance Analysis of Power Consumption in Optical Modulators based on Graphene. / Neves, Daniel ; Nobrega, Rafael ; Sanches, Anderson ; Jurando-Navas, Antonio; Glesk, Ivan ; Haxha, Shyqyri; Raddo, Thiago.

In: OSA Continuum, 11.08.2022, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • Daniel Neves
  • Rafael Nobrega
  • Anderson Sanches
  • Antonio Jurando-Navas
  • Ivan Glesk
  • Shyqyri Haxha
  • Thiago Raddo


Energy-efficient devices will play a key role in the continued performance scaling of next-generation information and communication technology systems. Graphene has emerged as a key optoelectronic material with unique energy-like
properties. But to the best of our knowledge, these advantages have not yet been fully exploited in optical modulators design. In this work, we design and analyze a novel optical modulator which is composed of two graphene layers and a
ring resonator made with different amount of graphene. For performance analysis, the ring resonator’s amount of graphene is varied from 25 to 100% with four discrete steps. The critical coupling condition representing the OFFstate,
and the 3-dB transmission level representing the ON-state of the device are obtained. Numerical results show this new optical modulator consumes as little energy as 4.6 fJ/bit whilst achieving high-speed operation with bandwidth up to 42.6 GHz when employing surprisingly only 25% of graphene. The 42.6 GHz modulator has a footprint as small as 22.𝟏 μ𝒎𝟐 with an active area of 1.68 μ𝒎𝟐 only, the smallest active area to date. Alternatively, the optical modulator achieves up to ~88.5 GHz at the expense of consuming 17.5 fJ/bit when using 100% of graphene. The proposed graphene-based modulator proved to be a compact, energy-efficient, high-speed device, useful for a myriad of applications including mobile fronthaul, telecom, and datacom.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalOSA Continuum
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 11 Aug 2022
This open access research output is licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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