Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport. / Karaoglu, Ozgur; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 452, 15.10.2016, p. 157-170.

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Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport. / Karaoglu, Ozgur; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 452, 15.10.2016, p. 157-170.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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@article{3ea65dd927e945c390c27d303f396e7c,
title = "Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport",
abstract = "Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15–18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby {\"O}zen{\c c} volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow magma chambers.",
author = "Ozgur Karaoglu and John Browning and Mohsen Bazargan and Agust Gudmundsson",
year = "2016",
month = oct,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsl.2016.07.037",
language = "English",
volume = "452",
pages = "157--170",
journal = "Earth and Planetary Science Letters",
issn = "0012-821X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport

AU - Karaoglu, Ozgur

AU - Browning, John

AU - Bazargan, Mohsen

AU - Gudmundsson, Agust

PY - 2016/10/15

Y1 - 2016/10/15

N2 - Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15–18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow magma chambers.

AB - Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15–18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow magma chambers.

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.07.037

DO - 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.07.037

M3 - Article

VL - 452

SP - 157

EP - 170

JO - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

JF - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

SN - 0012-821X

ER -