Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site. / Shaw, Jacob; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph ; Shah, Adil; Wilde, Shona; Stamford, Laurence; Fan, Zhaoyang; Ricketts, Hugo; Williams, Paul; Bateson, Prudence; Barker, Patrick; Purvis, Ruth; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; France, James; Coleman, Max; Lewis, Alastair C.; Risk, David; Ward, Robert S.

In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 11.09.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

E-pub ahead of print

Standard

Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site. / Shaw, Jacob; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph ; Shah, Adil; Wilde, Shona; Stamford, Laurence; Fan, Zhaoyang; Ricketts, Hugo; Williams, Paul; Bateson, Prudence; Barker, Patrick; Purvis, Ruth; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca; France, James; Coleman, Max; Lewis, Alastair C.; Risk, David; Ward, Robert S.

In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 11.09.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Shaw, J, Allen, G, Pitt, J, Shah, A, Wilde, S, Stamford, L, Fan, Z, Ricketts, H, Williams, P, Bateson, P, Barker, P, Purvis, R, Lowry, D, Fisher, R, France, J, Coleman, M, Lewis, AC, Risk, D & Ward, RS 2020, 'Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site', Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800

APA

Shaw, J., Allen, G., Pitt, J., Shah, A., Wilde, S., Stamford, L., Fan, Z., Ricketts, H., Williams, P., Bateson, P., Barker, P., Purvis, R., Lowry, D., Fisher, R., France, J., Coleman, M., Lewis, A. C., Risk, D., & Ward, R. S. (2020). Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800

Vancouver

Shaw J, Allen G, Pitt J, Shah A, Wilde S, Stamford L et al. Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 2020 Sep 11. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800

Author

Shaw, Jacob ; Allen, Grant ; Pitt, Joseph ; Shah, Adil ; Wilde, Shona ; Stamford, Laurence ; Fan, Zhaoyang ; Ricketts, Hugo ; Williams, Paul ; Bateson, Prudence ; Barker, Patrick ; Purvis, Ruth ; Lowry, David ; Fisher, Rebecca ; France, James ; Coleman, Max ; Lewis, Alastair C. ; Risk, David ; Ward, Robert S. / Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site. In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 2020.

BibTeX

@article{298f8e9a2b754f8988cf34f8997cd4dd,
title = "Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site",
abstract = "We report measurements of methane (CH) mixing ratios and emission fluxes derived from sampling at a monitoring station at an exploratory shale gas extraction facility in Lancashire, England. Elevated ambient CH mixing ratios were recorded in January 2019 during a period of cold-venting associated with a nitrogen lift process at the facility. These processes are used to clear the well to stimulate flow of natural gas from the target shale. Estimates of CH flux during the emission event were made using three independent modelling approaches: Gaussian plume dispersion (following both a simple Gaussian plume inversion and the US EPA OTM 33-A method), and a Lagrangian stochastic transport model (WindTrax). The three methods yielded an estimated peak CH flux during January 2019 of approximately 70 g s. The total mass of CH emitted during the six-day venting period was calculated to be 2.9, 4.2 ± 1.4(1σ) and 7.1 ± 2.1(1σ) tonnes CH using the simple Gaussian plume model, WindTrax and OTM-33A methods, respectively. Whilst the flux approaches all agreed within 1σ uncertainty, an estimate of 4.2 (± 1.4) tonnes CH represents the most confident assessment due to the explicit modelling of advection and meteorological stability permitted using the WindTrax model. This mass is consistent with fluxes calculated by the Environment Agency (in the range 2.7 to 6.8 tonnes CH), using emission data provided by the shale site operator to the regulator. This study provides the first CH emission estimate for a nitrogen lift process and the first-reported flux monitoring of a UK shale gas site, and contributes to the evaluation of the environmental impacts of shale gas operations worldwide. This study also provides forward guidance on future monitoring applications and flux calculation in transient emission events. Implications Thank you for your consideration of our manuscript. This manuscript discusses atmospheric measurements near to the UK's first hydraulic fracturing facility, which has very high UK public, media, and policy interest. The focus of this manuscript is on a single week of data in which a large venting event at the shale gas site saw emissions of ~4 tonnes of methane to atmosphere, in breach of environmental permits. As such, our results are highly likely to be reported by the media and may influence future policy decisions concerning the UK hydraulic fracturing industry.",
author = "Jacob Shaw and Grant Allen and Joseph Pitt and Adil Shah and Shona Wilde and Laurence Stamford and Zhaoyang Fan and Hugo Ricketts and Paul Williams and Prudence Bateson and Patrick Barker and Ruth Purvis and David Lowry and Rebecca Fisher and James France and Max Coleman and Lewis, {Alastair C.} and David Risk and Ward, {Robert S.}",
year = "2020",
month = sep,
day = "11",
doi = "10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association",
issn = "2162-2906",
publisher = "Taylor & Francis",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Methane flux from flowback operations at a shale gas site

AU - Shaw, Jacob

AU - Allen, Grant

AU - Pitt, Joseph

AU - Shah, Adil

AU - Wilde, Shona

AU - Stamford, Laurence

AU - Fan, Zhaoyang

AU - Ricketts, Hugo

AU - Williams, Paul

AU - Bateson, Prudence

AU - Barker, Patrick

AU - Purvis, Ruth

AU - Lowry, David

AU - Fisher, Rebecca

AU - France, James

AU - Coleman, Max

AU - Lewis, Alastair C.

AU - Risk, David

AU - Ward, Robert S.

PY - 2020/9/11

Y1 - 2020/9/11

N2 - We report measurements of methane (CH) mixing ratios and emission fluxes derived from sampling at a monitoring station at an exploratory shale gas extraction facility in Lancashire, England. Elevated ambient CH mixing ratios were recorded in January 2019 during a period of cold-venting associated with a nitrogen lift process at the facility. These processes are used to clear the well to stimulate flow of natural gas from the target shale. Estimates of CH flux during the emission event were made using three independent modelling approaches: Gaussian plume dispersion (following both a simple Gaussian plume inversion and the US EPA OTM 33-A method), and a Lagrangian stochastic transport model (WindTrax). The three methods yielded an estimated peak CH flux during January 2019 of approximately 70 g s. The total mass of CH emitted during the six-day venting period was calculated to be 2.9, 4.2 ± 1.4(1σ) and 7.1 ± 2.1(1σ) tonnes CH using the simple Gaussian plume model, WindTrax and OTM-33A methods, respectively. Whilst the flux approaches all agreed within 1σ uncertainty, an estimate of 4.2 (± 1.4) tonnes CH represents the most confident assessment due to the explicit modelling of advection and meteorological stability permitted using the WindTrax model. This mass is consistent with fluxes calculated by the Environment Agency (in the range 2.7 to 6.8 tonnes CH), using emission data provided by the shale site operator to the regulator. This study provides the first CH emission estimate for a nitrogen lift process and the first-reported flux monitoring of a UK shale gas site, and contributes to the evaluation of the environmental impacts of shale gas operations worldwide. This study also provides forward guidance on future monitoring applications and flux calculation in transient emission events. Implications Thank you for your consideration of our manuscript. This manuscript discusses atmospheric measurements near to the UK's first hydraulic fracturing facility, which has very high UK public, media, and policy interest. The focus of this manuscript is on a single week of data in which a large venting event at the shale gas site saw emissions of ~4 tonnes of methane to atmosphere, in breach of environmental permits. As such, our results are highly likely to be reported by the media and may influence future policy decisions concerning the UK hydraulic fracturing industry.

AB - We report measurements of methane (CH) mixing ratios and emission fluxes derived from sampling at a monitoring station at an exploratory shale gas extraction facility in Lancashire, England. Elevated ambient CH mixing ratios were recorded in January 2019 during a period of cold-venting associated with a nitrogen lift process at the facility. These processes are used to clear the well to stimulate flow of natural gas from the target shale. Estimates of CH flux during the emission event were made using three independent modelling approaches: Gaussian plume dispersion (following both a simple Gaussian plume inversion and the US EPA OTM 33-A method), and a Lagrangian stochastic transport model (WindTrax). The three methods yielded an estimated peak CH flux during January 2019 of approximately 70 g s. The total mass of CH emitted during the six-day venting period was calculated to be 2.9, 4.2 ± 1.4(1σ) and 7.1 ± 2.1(1σ) tonnes CH using the simple Gaussian plume model, WindTrax and OTM-33A methods, respectively. Whilst the flux approaches all agreed within 1σ uncertainty, an estimate of 4.2 (± 1.4) tonnes CH represents the most confident assessment due to the explicit modelling of advection and meteorological stability permitted using the WindTrax model. This mass is consistent with fluxes calculated by the Environment Agency (in the range 2.7 to 6.8 tonnes CH), using emission data provided by the shale site operator to the regulator. This study provides the first CH emission estimate for a nitrogen lift process and the first-reported flux monitoring of a UK shale gas site, and contributes to the evaluation of the environmental impacts of shale gas operations worldwide. This study also provides forward guidance on future monitoring applications and flux calculation in transient emission events. Implications Thank you for your consideration of our manuscript. This manuscript discusses atmospheric measurements near to the UK's first hydraulic fracturing facility, which has very high UK public, media, and policy interest. The focus of this manuscript is on a single week of data in which a large venting event at the shale gas site saw emissions of ~4 tonnes of methane to atmosphere, in breach of environmental permits. As such, our results are highly likely to be reported by the media and may influence future policy decisions concerning the UK hydraulic fracturing industry.

U2 - 10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800

DO - 10.1080/10962247.2020.1811800

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association

JF - Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association

SN - 2162-2906

ER -