Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges. / Hasenclever, Joerg; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.; Morgan, Jason; Iyer, Karthik; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.

In: Nature, Vol. 508, 24.04.2014, p. 508-512.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges. / Hasenclever, Joerg; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.; Morgan, Jason; Iyer, Karthik; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.

In: Nature, Vol. 508, 24.04.2014, p. 508-512.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Hasenclever, J, Theissen-Krah, S, Rüpke, LH, Morgan, J, Iyer, K, Petersen, S & Devey, CW 2014, 'Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges', Nature, vol. 508, pp. 508-512. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13174

APA

Hasenclever, J., Theissen-Krah, S., Rüpke, L. H., Morgan, J., Iyer, K., Petersen, S., & Devey, C. W. (2014). Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges. Nature, 508, 508-512. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13174

Vancouver

Hasenclever J, Theissen-Krah S, Rüpke LH, Morgan J, Iyer K, Petersen S et al. Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges. Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508:508-512. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13174

Author

Hasenclever, Joerg ; Theissen-Krah, Sonja ; Rüpke, Lars H. ; Morgan, Jason ; Iyer, Karthik ; Petersen, Sven ; Devey, Colin W. / Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 508. pp. 508-512.

BibTeX

@article{0eb0b8dd044944ee94c8def66c69a8bb,
title = "Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges",
abstract = "Hydrothermal flow at oceanic spreading centres accounts for about ten per cent of all heat flux in the oceans1,2 and controls the thermal structure of young oceanic plates. It also influences ocean and crustal chemistry, provides a basis for chemosynthetic ecosystems, and has formed massive sulphide ore deposits throughout Earth{\' }s history. Despite this, how and under what conditions heat is extracted, in particular from the lower crust, remains largely unclear. Here we present high-resolution, whole-crust, two- and three-dimensional simulations of hydrothermal flow beneath fast spreading ridges that predict the existence of two interacting flow components, controlled by different physical mechanisms, that merge above the melt lens to feed ridge-centred vent sites. Shallow on-axis flow structures develop owing to the thermodynamic properties of water, whereasdeeper off-axis flow is strongly shaped by crustal permeability, particularly the brittle–ductile transition. About 60 per cent of the discharging fluid mass is replenished on-axis by warm (up to 300 degrees Celsius) recharge flow surrounding the hot thermal plumes, and the remaining 40 per cent or so occurs as colder and broader recharge up to several kilometres away from the axis that feeds hot (500-700 degrees Celsius) deep-rooted off-axis flow towards the ridge. Despite its lower contribution to the total mass flux, this deep off-axis flow carries ~70 per cent of the thermal energy released at the ridge axis. This combination of two flow components explains the seismically determined thermal structure of the crust and reconcile previously incompatible models favouring either shallower on-axis3-5 or deeper off-axis hydrothermal circulation6-8.",
keywords = "geodynamics, hydrology, volcanology, computational science",
author = "Joerg Hasenclever and Sonja Theissen-Krah and R{\"u}pke, {Lars H.} and Jason Morgan and Karthik Iyer and Sven Petersen and Devey, {Colin W.}",
year = "2014",
month = apr,
day = "24",
doi = "10.1038/nature13174",
language = "English",
volume = "508",
pages = "508--512",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast spreading ridges

AU - Hasenclever, Joerg

AU - Theissen-Krah, Sonja

AU - Rüpke, Lars H.

AU - Morgan, Jason

AU - Iyer, Karthik

AU - Petersen, Sven

AU - Devey, Colin W.

PY - 2014/4/24

Y1 - 2014/4/24

N2 - Hydrothermal flow at oceanic spreading centres accounts for about ten per cent of all heat flux in the oceans1,2 and controls the thermal structure of young oceanic plates. It also influences ocean and crustal chemistry, provides a basis for chemosynthetic ecosystems, and has formed massive sulphide ore deposits throughout Earth ́s history. Despite this, how and under what conditions heat is extracted, in particular from the lower crust, remains largely unclear. Here we present high-resolution, whole-crust, two- and three-dimensional simulations of hydrothermal flow beneath fast spreading ridges that predict the existence of two interacting flow components, controlled by different physical mechanisms, that merge above the melt lens to feed ridge-centred vent sites. Shallow on-axis flow structures develop owing to the thermodynamic properties of water, whereasdeeper off-axis flow is strongly shaped by crustal permeability, particularly the brittle–ductile transition. About 60 per cent of the discharging fluid mass is replenished on-axis by warm (up to 300 degrees Celsius) recharge flow surrounding the hot thermal plumes, and the remaining 40 per cent or so occurs as colder and broader recharge up to several kilometres away from the axis that feeds hot (500-700 degrees Celsius) deep-rooted off-axis flow towards the ridge. Despite its lower contribution to the total mass flux, this deep off-axis flow carries ~70 per cent of the thermal energy released at the ridge axis. This combination of two flow components explains the seismically determined thermal structure of the crust and reconcile previously incompatible models favouring either shallower on-axis3-5 or deeper off-axis hydrothermal circulation6-8.

AB - Hydrothermal flow at oceanic spreading centres accounts for about ten per cent of all heat flux in the oceans1,2 and controls the thermal structure of young oceanic plates. It also influences ocean and crustal chemistry, provides a basis for chemosynthetic ecosystems, and has formed massive sulphide ore deposits throughout Earth ́s history. Despite this, how and under what conditions heat is extracted, in particular from the lower crust, remains largely unclear. Here we present high-resolution, whole-crust, two- and three-dimensional simulations of hydrothermal flow beneath fast spreading ridges that predict the existence of two interacting flow components, controlled by different physical mechanisms, that merge above the melt lens to feed ridge-centred vent sites. Shallow on-axis flow structures develop owing to the thermodynamic properties of water, whereasdeeper off-axis flow is strongly shaped by crustal permeability, particularly the brittle–ductile transition. About 60 per cent of the discharging fluid mass is replenished on-axis by warm (up to 300 degrees Celsius) recharge flow surrounding the hot thermal plumes, and the remaining 40 per cent or so occurs as colder and broader recharge up to several kilometres away from the axis that feeds hot (500-700 degrees Celsius) deep-rooted off-axis flow towards the ridge. Despite its lower contribution to the total mass flux, this deep off-axis flow carries ~70 per cent of the thermal energy released at the ridge axis. This combination of two flow components explains the seismically determined thermal structure of the crust and reconcile previously incompatible models favouring either shallower on-axis3-5 or deeper off-axis hydrothermal circulation6-8.

KW - geodynamics

KW - hydrology

KW - volcanology

KW - computational science

U2 - 10.1038/nature13174

DO - 10.1038/nature13174

M3 - Article

VL - 508

SP - 508

EP - 512

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

ER -