Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. / Rhodes, Gillian; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Clark, Alison; Lee, Kieran; McKay, Ryan; Akamatsu, Shigeru.

In: Perception, Vol. 30, 2001, p. 611-625.

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Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. / Rhodes, Gillian; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Clark, Alison; Lee, Kieran; McKay, Ryan; Akamatsu, Shigeru.

In: Perception, Vol. 30, 2001, p. 611-625.

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Rhodes, Gillian ; Yoshikawa, Sakiko ; Clark, Alison ; Lee, Kieran ; McKay, Ryan ; Akamatsu, Shigeru. / Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. In: Perception. 2001 ; Vol. 30. pp. 611-625.

BibTeX

@article{c172461b2c954a6f968044c5eadbb567,
title = "Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty.",
abstract = "Averageness and symmetry are attractive in Western faces and are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A hallmark of such standards is that they are shared across cultures. We examined whether facial averageness and symmetry are attractive in non-Western cultures. Increasing the averageness of individual faces, by warping those faces towards an averaged composite of the same race and sex, increased the attractiveness of bothChinese (experiment 1) and Japanese (experiment 2) faces, for Chinese and Japanese participants, respectively. Decreasing averageness by moving the faces away from an average shape decreased attractiveness. We also manipulated the symmetry of Japanese faces by blending each original face with its mirror image to create perfectly symmetric versions. Japanese raters preferred the perfectly symmetric versions to the original faces (experiment 2). These findings show that preferences for facial averageness and symmetry are not restricted to Western cultures, consistent with the view that they are biologically based. Interestingly, it made little difference whether averageness was manipulated by using own-race or other-race averaged composites and there was no preference for own-race averaged composites over other-race or mixed-race composites (experiment 1).We discuss the implications of these results for understanding what makes average faces attractive. We also discuss some limitations of our studies, and consider other lines of converging evidence that may help determine whether preferences for average and symmetric faces are biologically based.",
author = "Gillian Rhodes and Sakiko Yoshikawa and Alison Clark and Kieran Lee and Ryan McKay and Shigeru Akamatsu",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1068/p3123",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "611--625",
journal = "Perception",
issn = "0301-0066",
publisher = "Pion Ltd.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty.

AU - Rhodes, Gillian

AU - Yoshikawa, Sakiko

AU - Clark, Alison

AU - Lee, Kieran

AU - McKay, Ryan

AU - Akamatsu, Shigeru

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Averageness and symmetry are attractive in Western faces and are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A hallmark of such standards is that they are shared across cultures. We examined whether facial averageness and symmetry are attractive in non-Western cultures. Increasing the averageness of individual faces, by warping those faces towards an averaged composite of the same race and sex, increased the attractiveness of bothChinese (experiment 1) and Japanese (experiment 2) faces, for Chinese and Japanese participants, respectively. Decreasing averageness by moving the faces away from an average shape decreased attractiveness. We also manipulated the symmetry of Japanese faces by blending each original face with its mirror image to create perfectly symmetric versions. Japanese raters preferred the perfectly symmetric versions to the original faces (experiment 2). These findings show that preferences for facial averageness and symmetry are not restricted to Western cultures, consistent with the view that they are biologically based. Interestingly, it made little difference whether averageness was manipulated by using own-race or other-race averaged composites and there was no preference for own-race averaged composites over other-race or mixed-race composites (experiment 1).We discuss the implications of these results for understanding what makes average faces attractive. We also discuss some limitations of our studies, and consider other lines of converging evidence that may help determine whether preferences for average and symmetric faces are biologically based.

AB - Averageness and symmetry are attractive in Western faces and are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A hallmark of such standards is that they are shared across cultures. We examined whether facial averageness and symmetry are attractive in non-Western cultures. Increasing the averageness of individual faces, by warping those faces towards an averaged composite of the same race and sex, increased the attractiveness of bothChinese (experiment 1) and Japanese (experiment 2) faces, for Chinese and Japanese participants, respectively. Decreasing averageness by moving the faces away from an average shape decreased attractiveness. We also manipulated the symmetry of Japanese faces by blending each original face with its mirror image to create perfectly symmetric versions. Japanese raters preferred the perfectly symmetric versions to the original faces (experiment 2). These findings show that preferences for facial averageness and symmetry are not restricted to Western cultures, consistent with the view that they are biologically based. Interestingly, it made little difference whether averageness was manipulated by using own-race or other-race averaged composites and there was no preference for own-race averaged composites over other-race or mixed-race composites (experiment 1).We discuss the implications of these results for understanding what makes average faces attractive. We also discuss some limitations of our studies, and consider other lines of converging evidence that may help determine whether preferences for average and symmetric faces are biologically based.

U2 - 10.1068/p3123

DO - 10.1068/p3123

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 611

EP - 625

JO - Perception

JF - Perception

SN - 0301-0066

ER -