A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL. / Tinetti, Giovanna; Waltham, David.

In: Experimental Astronomy, 04.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Forthcoming

Abstract

Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution.The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) has been selected by the European Space Agencyas the next medium-class science mission, M4, to address these scientific questions. ARIEL was conceived toobserve a large number (~1000) of transiting planetsfor statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25-7.8 μm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIELwill focus onwarm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materialscompared to their colder Solar System siblings.Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulkcomposition.Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of theirelemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si),will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate thisdirectly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-lightspectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10-100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species.Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed –using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement –using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusionat the end of the Phase A study,is that ARIEL –in line with the stated mission objectives –will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.
Original languageEnglish
JournalExperimental Astronomy
StateAccepted/In press - 4 Jul 2018

ID: 30783679