Mr Christopher Francis

Supervised by

  • Ian Candy First/primary/lead supervisor

    1/10/17 → …

Educational background

2017-present: PhD, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, London NERC DTP cohort 4

2014-2016: MSc Quaternary Science, Royal Holloway, University of London

2011-2014: BSc (Hons) physical Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London

Personal profile

PhD title: Investigating climatic gradients across Britain during the Lateglacial Interstadial (GI-1) using chironomids and oxygen isotopes.

The IPCC predict that in the future Northwest Europe will become increasingly susceptible to abrupt cooling events (ACEs). However, the forcing mechanisms causing ACEs are not yet fully understood, though, they are considered to be related to: (1) variations in the strength of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC); (2) solar variability; (3) ice mass configuration; or (4) a combination of these factors. ACEs are frequently observed in Lateglacial Interstadial palaeo-records (c. 14.7-12.9kyr ago) and by studying their spatial patterns the role of each potential forcing mechanism outlined above can be assessed. Unfortunately, there are currently too few records of abrupt climatic events with sufficient resolution to robustly attempt this. Especially lacking are records from latitudes known to be most influenced by changing AMOC strength and from locations known to have experienced profound abrupt climate change in the past (50-60°N). Therefore, this study aims to address this lack of information by utilising high-resolution quantitative proxies, from Britain and Ireland, to reconstruct patterns of ACEs during the Lateglacial Interstadial. By studying the pattern, trends, magnitude, and effects of a series of past abrupt climatic events across this time period it is hoped the forcing mechanisms can be better understood.



  • Teaching Assistant (GG1011A) Geographical Techniques (Quantitative Methods) in Physical Geography
  • Field Assistant (GG1032) Geographical Research and Field Training
  • Field and Laboratory Assistant (GG2041) Environmental change
  • Teaching Assistant (GG5231) Chironomids and Environmental Change
  • Lecturer (GG5232) Palaeoecology, Dating and Quantification - Introduction to Chironomids and Coleoptera
  • Supervisor (GG5299) MSc dissertation

Research interests

  • Quantitative climate reconstruction - Chironomids and Oxygen isotopes
  • Chronology - tephrochronology and radiocarbon dating
  • Lateglacial Interstadial
  • Abrupt climate change
  • Palaeolimnology

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