The parahippocampal cingulum bundle (PHCB) interconnects regions known to be vulnerable to early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, including posteromedial cortex and medial temporal lobe. While AD-related pathology has been robustly associated with alterations in PHCB microstructure, specifically lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD), emerging evidence indicates that the reverse pattern is evident in younger adults at increased risk of AD. In one such study, Hodgetts et al. (2019) reported that healthy young adult carriers of the apolipoprotein-E (APOE) ε4 allele – the strongest common genetic risk factor for AD – showed higher FA and lower MD in the PHCB but not the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). These results are consistent with proposals claiming that heightened neural activity and intrinsic connectivity play a significant role in increasing posteromedial cortex vulnerability to amyloid-β and tau spread beyond the medial temporal lobe. Given the implications for understanding AD risk, here we sought to replicate Hodgetts et al.’s finding in a larger sample (N = 128; 40 APOE ε4 carriers, 88 APOE ε4 non-carriers) of young adults (age range = 19-33). Extending this work, we also conducted an exploratory analysis using a more advanced measure of white matter microstructure: hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA). Contrary to the original study, we did not observe higher FA or lower MD in the PHCB of APOE ε4 carriers relative to non-carriers. Bayes factors (BFs) further revealed moderate-to-strong evidence in support of these null findings. In addition, we observed no APOE ε4-related differences in PHCB HMOA. Our findings indicate that young adult APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers do not differ in PHCB microstructure, casting some doubt on the notion that early-life variation in PHCB tract microstructure might enhance vulnerability to amyloid-β accumulation and/or tau spread.
- Alzheimer’s disease
- parahippocampal cingulum bundle
- inferior longitudinal fasciculus
- diffusion MRI
- structural connectivity