In this article, I use Albert Hirschman's consumer-based 'exit' and 'voice' concepts in order to set out the political ecology of voice (PEV), an innovative theoretical framework that aims to examine the causes of environmental pollution from a new angle. I begin by providing a brief overview of political ecology, and why it provides such a useful framework from which to position Hirschman's ideas of exit and voice. This will lead into a more detailed analysis of Hirschman's theories in an environmental context, and why the use of voice by various stakeholders (citizens, community based organizations (CBOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)) is dependent upon a number of political, economic, social and geographical factors over a specific temporal period. The study of voice through PEV will enable researchers to examine the accountability of economic actors for incidents of environmental pollution.
- Albert Hirschman
- political ecology of voice