The Phoenix Model: Disengagement and Deradicalisation.

Andrew Silke, John F. Morrison, Heidi Maiberg, Chloe Slay, Rebecca Stewart

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In a review of disengagement and deradicalisation literature from 2017 to 2020, we identified 11 major themes: Opportunity, Disillusionment, (Dis)trust, Family and friends, Prison, Identity, Programme interventions, Formers, Security, Mental health, and Reintegration. Many of these themes have been flagged as significant factors in disengagement and deradicalisation before, though this is the first time they’ve been identified as a collective and this systematic approach allowed further analysis to suggest a new model for understanding disengagement and deradicalisation processes. Within these themes, we identified three catalysts: actor, psychological, and environmental, that play interconnected roles in an individual’s disengagement and/or deradicalisation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-27
Number of pages4
JournalCREST Security Review
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2021


  • Phoenix Model
  • terrorism
  • terrorists
  • violent extremism
  • disengagement
  • deradicalisation
  • deradicalisation programmes
  • rehabilitation

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