The Combined Role of Independence in Self-Concept and a Collectivistic Value Orientation in Group-Focused Enmity inKorea

Hayeon Lee, Hoon Seok Choi, Giovanni Travaglino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Previous research (Zick et al. 2008) suggested that animosity toward social minorities in Europe is intertwined,forming a syndrome of Group-Focused Enmity (GFE). In the current research, we extended the notion of GFE byidentifying the GFE structure in a non-European context (South Korea). We also tested a novel hypothesis thatstipulates an interplay between individuals’ self-concept and their value orientation in predicting the overalllevel of GFE. Two nation-wide surveys in South Korea showed that antagonism toward social minorities thathave typically been marginalized and devalued in that country forms GFE while reflecting the unique intergroupcontext of Korean society. Further, we found as expected that independence in self-concept and a collectivisticvalue orientation jointly predict lower levels of GFE (Study 1). When political orientation and national identifica-tion were taken into account, the predicted interaction was observed only on antagonism toward ingroup minor-ities but not toward outgroup minorities by race or ethnicity (Study 2). Implications of these findings and direc-tions for research on GFE are discussed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Conflict and Violence
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2022

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