The Challenge of Creating an Adaptive Bundeswehr

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This article examines the capacity of the German Army to establish key conditions for successful tactical- and operational-level adaptation, innovation and emulation. In doing so, it explores the factors which stimulate and block adaptation, innovation and emulation. The article points to the need for accounts of German foreign, defence and security policy to pay greater attention to the intra-organisational barriers to effective policy implementation. Finally, it highlights avenues for future empirical and theoretical research on military change, especially the need for greater understanding of the role of learning processes in linking military adaptation in the field to wider organisational learning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-139
Number of pages17
JournalGerman Politics
Issue number1
Early online date7 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • German military
  • Bundeswehr
  • Lessons learned
  • Military learning
  • Military adaptation
  • Military innovation
  • Miitary emulation
  • Organisational learning

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