The appropriation of conversational AI in the workplace: A taxonomy of AI chatbot users

Lorentsa Gkinko, Amany Elbanna

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There is an exponential growth of the use of AI applications in organisations. Due to the machine learning capability of artificial intelligence (AI) applications, it is critical that such systems are used continuously in order to generate rich use data that allow them to learn, evolve and mature into a better fit for their user and organisational context. This research focuses on the actual use of conversational AI, in particular AI chatbot, as one type of workplace AI application to answer the research question: how do employees experience the use of an AI chatbot in their day-to-day work? Through a qualitative case study of a large international organisation and by performing an inductive analysis, the research uncovers the different ways in which users appropriate the AI chatbot and identifies two key dimensions that determine their type of use: the dominant mode of interaction and the understanding of the AI chatbot technology. Based on these dimensions, a taxonomy of users is presented, which classifies users of AI chatbots into four types: early quitters, pragmatics, progressives, and persistents. The findings contribute to the understanding of how conversational AI, particularly AI chatbots, is used in organi- sations and pave the way for further research in this regard. The implications for practice are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102568
JournalInternational Journal of Information Management
Early online date29 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • AI Chatbot
  • Conversational AI
  • Future of Work
  • AI Use
  • Taxonomy
  • artificial intelligence
  • AI adoption
  • Smart organisation
  • Smart Technology
  • Enterprise bots
  • industrial revolution

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