Penalties in Delphic paramone Clauses: A Gender Perspective

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This paper discusses the legal capacity and motivations of female manumittors in Hellenistic Delphi, and the penal authority bestowed on female beneficiaries appointed in paramone clauses. These suggest that women enjoyed similar penal authority to that of male beneficiaries, depending on the stipulations in each contract. Manumissions appointing female beneficiaries of paramone may reflect the need to reduce the risk of claims asserted by heir or creditors of the beneficiary’s male kin, whom it would often have been difficult for a woman to fend off through the courts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSymposion 2019
EditorsKaja Harter-Uibopuu, Werner Rieß
Place of PublicationVienna
PublisherVerlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Number of pages479
ISBN (Print)9783700190073
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Publication series

NameAkten der Gesellschaft für griechische und hellenistische Rechtsgeschiche
PublisherVerlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften


  • paramone, penalty clauses, corporal punishment, contracts, women’s legal capacity

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