Georg Simmel depicts money as an evolving entity that will continue to evolve to a state of ‘perfect money’ disconnected from any external guarantor of value. This article examines some of the different approaches to substantial value underpinning money, suggesting that they represent different types of fictional underwriting. Money is then contrasted with cryptocurrency, suggesting that their respective value is not only derived from different fictions but from different standards of value as major and minor currency. This analysis suggests that far from evolving into a fully abstract and functional instrument for creating stable social relationships, the divergence in currencies and currency fictions is a force for overturning such ‘expedient’ stability.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMarketing Theory
Early online date2 Nov 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Nov 2022


  • Money
  • Deleuze and Guattari
  • Cryptocurrency
  • Bitcoin
  • fiction

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