Homo sapiens in Arabia by 85,000 years ago

Huw Groucutt, R. Grün, Iyad Zalmout, Nick Drake, Simon Armitage, Ian Candy, Richard Clark-Wilson, Julien Louys, Paul Breeze, Mathieu Duval, Laura Buck, Tracey Kivell, Emma Pomeroy, Nicholas Stephens, Jay Stock, Mathew Stewart, Gilbert Price, Leslie Kinsley, Wing Wai Sung, Abdullah AlsharekhAbdulaziz Al-Omari, Muhammad Zahir, Abdullah Memesh, Ammar Abdulshakoor, Abdu Al-Masari, Ahmed Bahameem, Khaled Al Murayyi, Badr Zahrani, Eleanor Scerri, Michael Petraglia

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Understanding the timing and character of Homo sapiens expansion out of Africa is critical for inferring the colonisation and admixture processes that underpin global population history. It has been argued that dispersal out of Africa had an early phase, particularly ~130-90 thousand years ago (ka), that only reached the East Mediterranean Levant, and a later phase, ~60-50 ka, that extended across the diverse environments of Eurasia to Sahul. However, recent findings from East Asia and Sahul challenge this model. Here we show that H. sapiens was in the Arabian Peninsula before 85 ka. We describe the Al Wusta-1 (AW-1) intermediate phalanx from the site of Al Wusta in the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia. AW-1 is the oldest directly dated fossil of our species outside Africa and the Levant. The palaeoenvironmental context of Al Wusta demonstrates that H. sapiens using Middle Palaeolithic stone tools dispersed into Arabia during a phase of increased precipitation driven by orbital forcing, in association with a primarily African fauna. A Bayesian model incorporating independent chronometric age estimates indicates a chronology for Al Wusta of ~95-86 ka, which we correlate with a humid episode in the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 5 known from various regional records. Al Wusta shows that early dispersals were more spatially and temporally extensive than previously thought. Early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)800–809
Number of pages10
JournalNature Ecology & Evolution
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2018

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