The cultivated apple, Malus x domestica (syn. Malus pumila), is prone to a plethora of fungal diseases. In this chapter, the authors explore those that cause canker diseases of apple in Europe with particular focus on European apple canker caused by Neonectria ditissima. The authors discuss N. ditissima in the context of the tree production cycle, introducing the aetiology and epidemiology of the pathogen, reviewing the key control measures (covering cultural, chemical and biological control), and identifying a number of future research areas (including detection and diagnostics, and the use of endophytes). Although this chapter is largely focused on N. ditissima, the most widely spread and devastating of the canker-causing diseases in Europe, certain aspects are applicable across all canker diseases. The authors conclude that with changes in the plant protection products available and in the methods of tree production and varietal susceptibility, finding solutions for canker management remains an important research target.
|Title of host publication
|Integrated management of diseases and insect pests of tree fruit
|Xiangming Xu, Michelle Fountain
|Place of Publication
|Published - 2019