From the Air to the Ground: The Internet in the 2004 US Presidential Campaign

Cristian Vaccari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Political campaigns have learned how to take advantage of online tools not only to communicate their message, but also, and more importantly, to mobilize supporters and provide opportunities for e-volunteers to become engaged in the process. Among the most significant developments in the 2004 US presidential election were strategies and tools designed to facilitate the transition from online to off-line engagement, thus strengthening field operations in a campaign where the ground game proved to be a crucial asset. These topics are addressed through in-depth qualitative interviews with senior aides to the e-campaigns of George W. Bush and John F. Kerry. Online political communication professionals predict that in the future the internet will become an increasingly relevant tool in campaigns and that its functions will be adopted all through the campaign organization.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-665
Number of pages18
JournalNew Media and Society
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • 2004 elections
  • grassroots
  • internet and politics
  • online activism
  • online campaigning
  • online mobilization
  • Political participation

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