Fama–French–Carhart Factor-Based Premiums in the US REIT Market: A Risk Based Explanation, and the Impact of Financial Distress and Liquidity Crisis from 2001 to 2020

Mohammad Sharik Essa, Evangelos Giouvris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Downloads (Pure)


The study investigates the impact of financial distress (credit spread) and liquidity crises (TED spread) on size, value, profitability, investment and momentum premiums within the US Real Estate Investment Trust market. Using daily data from 2001 to 2020, we examine the presence, magnitude and significance of these premiums, along with assessing if these premiums are associated with higher risk. The study then employs Auto-regressive distributed lag and Error Correction Modelling to establish the long/short-run impact of financial distress and liquidity crisis on these premiums during recessionary and non-recessionary phases, including COVID-19. Premiums associated with all
five factors are positive and significant. Secondly, in contradiction to the Efficient Market Hypothesis, we find that value and momentum portfolios provide superior returns without exposing investors to higher risk while portfolios based on size, profitability and investment, do tend to expose investors to a higher risk. Thirdly, in contradiction to the risk based explanation of Fama French/Carhart (2015/1997), we find significant evidence of a fall in profitability and momentum premiums with an uptick in financial distress and liquidity crisis. On the other hand, size, value and investment premiums rise with financial distress/liquidity crisis, only during the recessionary phases. This impact is insignificant during non-recessionary phases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalInternational Journal of Financial Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2023

Cite this