Does including the full CVLT-II and BVMT-R improve BICAMS? Evidence from a Belgian (Dutch) validation study

Lars Costers, Jeroen Gielen, Piet L. Eelen, Jeroen Van Shependom, Jorne Laton, Ann Van Remoortel, Ellen Vanzeir, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Pierrette Seeldrayers, Marie-Claire Haelewyck, Miguel D'Haeseleer, Marie-Beatrice D'hooghe, Dawn Langdon, Guy Nagels

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The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) is a fast, easy-to-administer and already widely validated neuropsychological battery for cognition in multiple sclerosis.


The goals of our study were to validate the BICAMS in a Belgian Dutch-speaking population and to investigate to what extent including extensive versions of two of the three BICAMS subtests improved its psychometric qualities.


Ninety-seven persons with MS and ninety-seven healthy controls were included and group-matched on age, education level and gender. All participants performed the BICAMS with an extensive version of the CVLT-II and BVMT-R.


The SDMT and BVMT-R were able to dissociate between the MS and healthy control group, while the CVLT-II was not. Distributions of CVLT-II scores suggest learning effects in the MS group, indicating the need for alternative word lists or the construction of an adapted version fitted for repeated administration. Including the full CVLT-II and BVMT-R did not markedly improve the psychometric qualities of the BICAMS.


This study validates the BICAMS in a Belgian Dutch-speaking population and facilitates the use of it in clinical practice, while providing evidence that including full versions of the CVLT-II and BVMT-R does not increase its psychometric qualities markedly.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-40
Number of pages8
JournalMultiple sclerosis and related disorders
Early online date7 Sept 2017
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017

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