Defensive forecasting

Vladimir Vovk, Akimichi Takemura, Glenn Shafer

Research output: Working paper

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We consider how to make probability forecasts of binary labels. Our main mathematical result is that for any continuous gambling strategy used for detecting disagreement between the forecasts and the actual labels, there exists a forecasting strategy whose forecasts are ideal as far as this gambling strategy is concerned. A forecasting strategy obtained in this way from a gambling strategy demonstrating a strong law of large numbers is simplified and studied empirically.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2005


  • cs.LG
  • cs.AI
  • I.2.6; I.5.1

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