This colloquium surveys a number of theoretical problems and open questions in the field of two-dimensional dilute Bose gases with weak repulsive interactions. In contrast to three dimensions, in two dimensions the formation of long-range order is prohibited by the Bogoliubov-Hohenberg theorem, and Bose-Einstein condensation is not expected to occur. Nevertheless, experimental indications supporting the formation of a condensate in low-dimensional systems have recently been obtained. This unexpected behavior appears to be due to the nonuniformity introduced into a system by the external trapping potential. Theoretical predictions, made for homogeneous systems, require therefore careful reexamination. A number of popular theoretical treatments of the dilute weakly interacting Bose gas are presented and their regions of applicability are discussed. The possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation in a two-dimensional gas, the validity of the perturbative t-matrix approximation, and the diluteness condition are issues also discussed in detail.