This paper examines the processes of agricultural transformation and their impacts within six rice farming communities in Cambodia. For this, we explored four drivers of agricultural transformation: (1) market integration, (2) modern technologies, (3) household assets, and (4) institutional-policy processes. The paper employs qualitative methods, using document analysis on the policy literature and datasets, field observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews in six rice farming communities in the Stung Chrey Bak Commune, Kampong Chhnang Province. Herein, we analyze the processes of agricultural transformation that shape farmer livelihoods and contribute to the literature regarding the dynamic and uneven politics of implementing the green revolution. Our findings show that agricultural transformation in the six rice farming communities has had mixed results. While the transitions have improved household income, they have also led to insecurity, with potential impacts on the long-term sustainability of the rice-production sector. These include higher input costs, fluctuating rice revenues, and environmental impacts from increased chemical use. We show that greater support is needed in these farming communities in order to achieve sustainable rice production going forward, particularly in light of climate change, indebtedness, and the migration of young labor to off-farm employment, leading to aging farmer populations.