Personal profile

Personal profile



I am a qualitative researcher with an interest in drug markets, drug dealing and cultures of drug use. My research focusses primarily on understanding illicit drug markets and 'non-commercial' drug supply through sociological and criminological frameworks. I have published widely in this area and I am currently working on projects that analyse 'Pharmacosexuality' (the intersection of sex and drugs), the policing of street drug markets, sentencing approaches towards low-level drug dealers, and understanding vulnerability in street-level drug markets.  

Research Interests

The Conceptualisation and Penal Response to ‘Social Supply’: One of my core research areas relates to social supply. My research has aimed to explore the scope and nature of social supply (recreational drug supply to friends/acquaintances for little or no profit) as well as critically analysing the current penal response to social suppliers, both in the UK and overseas.

Street-Level Drug Markets: Complimenting social supply, my research expertise extends to the policing and punishment of low-level suppliers operating in street-level drug markets. My principal focus here has been on understanding the social context of heroin and crack cocaineuser-dealing’, and more recently the evolution of street-level heroin and crack cocaine distribution through ‘county lines’ drug supply. I have recently become interested in the intersection between street-level supply and online technology, leading the first empirical research study on social media drug markets.  


Public Engagement, Dissemination and Policy Impact

I have presented my research findings to a number of academic and lay audiences including Public Health England, RUSI, the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (Glasgow), the Academy for Social Justice, schools, and Youth Offending Teams. My research findings have been published in the following international and national media outlets including Le Monde, Times of Malta, BBC News, The Guardian, The Independent, Vice Media, and The Face. My research on social supply and user-dealing of heroin and crack cocaine featured in the Global Commission on Drug Policy report (2016) ‘Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalisation’. It was also cited in the UK Government’s Violent Crime Strategy (2018), and was a heavily cited source in the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Europol’s 2019 EU Drug Market Report. 

Along with academic publications I have also gained experience of undertaking commissioned research with local stakeholders and partners including Drug and Alcohol Action Teams, Police and Youth Offening teams. I have worked on three Drug Market Rapid Appraisals (DMRAs) and have experience of fieldwork design, data collection, analysis and dissemination in local policy contexts.


Educational Background

2010 - 2013: PhD Sociology (Plymouth University)

2009: MSc Criminology and Criminal Justice (Plymouth University)

2007: BSc (Hons) Criminology and Sociology (Cardiff University) First Class

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being
  • SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Collaborations and top research areas from the last five years

Recent external collaboration on country/territory level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots or