Prompt Engineering and Provision of Context in Domain Specific Use of GPT

  • Ribary, M. (Speaker)
  • Vaccari, E. (Speaker)
  • Paul Krause (Speaker)
  • Thomas Wood (Speaker)
  • Miklos Orban (Speaker)

Activity: Talk or presentationOral presentation


Large Language Models (LLMs) can appear to generate expert advice on legal matters. However, at closer analysis, some of the advice provided has proven unsound or erroneous. We tested LLMs’ performance in the procedural and technical area of insolvency law in which our team has relevant expertise. This paper demonstrates that statistically more accurate results to evaluation questions come from a design which adds a curated knowledge base to produce quality responses when querying LLMs. We evaluated our bot head-to-head on an unseen test set of twelve questions about insolvency law against the unmodified versions of gpt-3.5-turbo and gpt-4 with a mark scheme similar to those used in examinations in law schools. On the “unseen test set”, the Insolvency Bot based on gpt-3.5-turbo outper-formed gpt-3.5-turbo (p = 1.8%), and our gpt-4 based bot outperformed unmodified gpt-4 (p = 0.05%). These promising results can be expanded to cross-jurisdictional queries and be further improved by matching on-point legal information to user queries. Overall, they demonstrate the importance of incorporating trusted knowledge sources into traditional LLMs in answering domain-specific queries.
Period19 Dec 2023
Event title36th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems
Event typeConference
LocationMaastricht, NetherlandsShow on map
Degree of RecognitionInternational


  • legal tech
  • large language models (LLM)
  • prompt engineering
  • natural language processing (NLP)
  • insolvency law (England)
  • chatbot