Since the inception of Gothic Studies, scholars have noted the intersection between modes of horror storytelling and real-world political movements. Some, such as Johan Höglund, have argued that horror imagery has been used to reinforce existing hegemonic power structures. Others, such as Maisha Wester, have argued that the Gothic, while potentially a conservative discourse, is also able to offer commentary that can deconstruct and critique these same formations of power. In a related vein, the Warwick Research Collective has recently argued that the Gothic can be seen as a protocritical response to historical shifts in the capitalist mode of production. These debates regarding the effect and affect of horror upon political consciousness continue beyond literature and film studies circles to historical and contemporary conversations regarding political commentary, rhetoric, and policy the world over.